Its upper body can range from black, brown-grey, olive or red and there are normally three light stripes running along its length. Common Gartersnake (color variations) Photos by Dr. Garter snake, garden snake, gardener snake, and ribbon snake are some of the common names for the nearly harmless, small to medium-sized snakes belonging to the genus Thamnophis. This is the "blow viper," "spreadhead viper," "spreading adder," or other equally ill-named snake usually found in dry sandy areas. and wet areas such as swamps, bogs, and. These snakes commonly occur in rivers, creeks, lakes, marshes, swamps, and manufactured bodies of water including ponds and stock tanks. 00 Ben Donovan, student in fi sheries and wildlife, and Nancy Allen, fi sheries and wildlife faculty, Oregon State University. Peterson2 Department of Zoology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 USA Abstract. The Common Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) is a snake indigenous to North America. Common Garter Snakes are medium-sized snakes that can attain sizes of up to 132 cm (52 in. No other common northwestern snakes share that pattern. Common garter snakes are some of the most common and abundant snakes throughout the eastern United States, at least partly because they do well in urban and suburban areas. For centuries, snakes have been misunderstood, under-appreciated, and even heavily persecuted. They are non-venomous, pose no threat to humans, and should not be killed. Even some field naturalists, and this writer, make mistakes when it comes to rapid-fire identification of the eastern garter snake and eastern ribbon snake. Color: Background color is olive to olive-brown. Their heads are darker than their bodies. Common garter snake. Identification. As far as I can see this news report is the first evidence of snakes from Newfoundland. Common gartersnakes look much like other gartersnakes except that their lateral stripes only involve scale rows 1, 2 and 3. They feed on toads, frogs and fish and although they will release musty, stinky smell, they are harmless. The snakes will sun in the day and hide at night. Males are slightly larger than females. The body is shaped like a loaf of bread. A medium-size, keel-scaled snake (18. Size: Plains garter snakes are generally 15 to 28 inches long. 5 metres (3. Though it doesn't grow nearly as large as the rat snakes, it can still reach a respectable four feet in length when fully grown!. All the best Garter Snake Drawing 33+ collected on this page. sauritus ssp. Starting at 6-8 inches long, adult snakes do not grow longer than 2-3 feet (males are typically shorter than females) with a girth of only a few inches. Behaviours (latency to move, defensive strikes, response distance) were scored prior to hormone manipulation (when snakes were 39 days of age), while sham or testosterone-containing implants were in place (190 days), following implant removal and. Active from March to November. Typical foods: small fish, tadpoles, salamanders, small frogs, and toads. Smaller snakes eat earthworms, but adults feed on a variety of vertebrate prey, including frogs, toads, salamanders, birds, fish, reptiles, and small mammals. However, they may bite if you try to pick them up. Common garter snakes are some of the most common snakes found in the United States. Recent studies suggest that snakes are also valuable in reducing disease threats posed by high rodent populations. The Common Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) is an indigenous North American snake found widely across the continent. ) species other than native subspecies; Garter Snake (T. Call your local ODFW office for more information. The Eastern gartersnake is one of Ohio's three gartersnakes, and it is the most abundant snake in Ohio. A substrate kitchen paper shows to be an excellent material since it is very absorbent and smooth. Snakes play very important roles in many natural communities as predator and prey. Shop for common garter snake art from the world's greatest living artists. Description: A medium-size, keel-scaled snake (18. No other common northwestern snakes share that pattern. This medium-sized snake has yellow to yellow-orange stripes on its sides. ) Adult length: 8 to 16 inches. It grows to 2 to 3 feet. It has lived up to 14 years in captivity. sense from a scientific standpoint, in common English usage, the term reptile is still reserved for the alligators and crocodiles (crocodilians), turtles, tortoises, lizards, snakes, and the tuatara, a lizard-like animal found only on several tiny islands off the coast of New Zealand. Comparison with other species: The Bluestripe Garter Snake ( Thamnophis sirtalis similis ) has light blue stripes and tannish lateral fleckings, along with a uniform whitish-blue belly. Lined snake 14. Medium sized snake reaching total length of up to 34 inches. Eastern Plains Garter Snake. Brown Snake. Common Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis):. No other common northwestern snakes share that pattern. Florida's Snakes Common Gartersnake (Thamnophis sirtalis) NON-VENOMOUS Blotched AND Striped. Everything You Need to Know (But Don't) About Ribbon Snakes Ribbon snakes are a class of garter snakes, and are common in the United States. Linda The Jungle Lady performs educational animal shows for groups of any size. eastern_gartersnake_10-28-11. This one of common garter snake I think is one very beautiful pattern colour of snake, this snake is also cute of snake because it has ideal size of body to be as pet either for adult or children/kids. These are the most common snakes found around buildings. The eastern garter snake is one such lovely creature residing in this part of the US, growing up to twenty six inches in length. One snake that I have wanted to see since I was a small child is the San Francisco Garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia). Garter Snakes for Sale. The Common Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) is an indigenous North American snake found widely across the continent. Typically 3 light. The body color background could be black, brown, grey or olive in color. Gopher snakes are harmless colubrid species found in North America. Although they are related to water snakes, they are less aquatic. Donovan and N. Young racers are clearly marked with brown blotches and spots (see inset), but these markings fade and eventually disappear as the young snakes grow. When threatened, a snake will first try and escape. They’ll also eat earthworms, slugs, leeches or other prey of an appropriate size but rarely insects. They live in many different rural and suburban areas and are found on hilltops, along rivers, and in backyards. Females are around 3ft long depending on species and males are usually 2ft or less in length. They are an extremely docile snakes for being wild. ) or related species (e. Is this a common garter snake? I’m in sachse texas. Garter snakes can have different coloring even when they're the same species. This is how it got the name "garter. Garters usually have three long stripes running from top to bottom: a center stripe that may be almost cream in color and two yellow stripes along the sides of the body. Additionally, in garter snakes the lateral yellow lines are on scales 2 and 3 whereas they are on scale rows 3 and 4 in ribbon snakes. Including advice from Georgia snake experts about rattlesnakes. My visitors are mostly plains garter snakes with the occasional common. Common garter snakes develop into 46 to 137 cm altogether length. However, snakes also loathe and fear feeling exposed. threatened by humans but I find them to be somewhat gentle. It's hilarious to watch. This is now known to be untrue, though their venom cannot kill a human. Garter Snakes for Sale. Thamnophis sirtalis. * Length: Up to 3'. The largest threat this snake will cause, is the injury you may recieve if you trip while running away. The common garter snake, the most wide-ranging reptile in North America, is also the most abundant snake in Maine. Garter snakes, while small in size, have been quite full of discoveries. When approached they will quickly take cover. Pictures by Andy Avram. Status: locally common. This article will inform you of common garter snake information and identification, as well as some interesting facts. Eastern Garter Snake. ) or related species (e. Juvenile racers are blotched gray to reddish brown, and are smaller than the adults, which have an average size of between 20 to 55 inches (0. Garter snakes spread throughout North America. This species is renowned for their hardiness and diurnal activity, which helps make them excellent pet reptiles. The measures of the terrarium should be as follows to allow ample room for your garter snake to roam: 70 inches in length, 13 inches high and 13 inches wide. Common Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis) The Common Garter Snake usually has a pattern of yellow stripes on a brown background. Small garter snakes eat earthworms and slugs while the diet of larger snakes includes amphibians, small rodents, nestling birds and fish. The valley garter snake, (Thamnophis sirtalis fitchi, Salish: Sč̓ewíle ) is a subspecies of the common garter snake. ©1994, 2000 Melissa Kaplan. ) or related species (e. Bluestripe Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis similis). General description: The common garter snake and it's cousin, the plains garter snake, are medium-sized snakes reaching up to 3 feet in length. Upon further observation, we discovered that she would prowl the yard during the day - who knows what she does at night - and when she found a hole, she'd stick a paw down in it and fish around. * Range: Garter snake species range throughout North America. The rat snake is one of the largest of the Maryland species of snakes and can grow up to 80 inches in length. The name brown snake refers to two different genera of snakes, found on two different continents. Young common garter snakes are born at 12. Young per year: 3 – 26 young born live in July and August. Listed below is a guide to help you identify snakes by predominant color. This is how it got the name "garter. Garter snakes give birth to live young. Or perhaps you don't like the smell—garter snakes, especially in large groups, kind of stink. occur in Oregon: the common kingsnake, the California mountain kingsnake, and the Pacific Coast aquatic garter snake are only found in southwestern Oregon (Table 1, St. Often called garden snakes due to the closeness in name, garter snakes are one of the most common types of snakes in the nation. Humans destroy the wetlands that these snakes live in, and pollute the waters that they hunt in. Most garter snakes have a pattern of yellow stripes on a brown background and their average length is about 1 metre (3. Young consume great quantities of prey in order to fatten up before the winter hibernation. Young common garter snakes are born at 12. •Reach an average adult length of up to 75. There are visible clues that they are there, though. This snake is common garter snake. Their bite is non-venomous and they love to eat small lizards and insects. Most common garter snakes have a pattern of yellow stripes on a black, brown or green background, and their average total length (including tail) is about 55 cm (22 in), with a maximum total length of about 137 cm (54 in). Both are approximately a foot and a half to two feet in length and have the same prominent yellow strip running down the entire length of their back from the base of their head. For a long time, garter snakes were thought to be non-venomous. Reproduction Live. The largest Thamnophis species is the giant gartersnake (T. They grow little from birth in the late summer until their first spring. Eastern Garter Snake - The eastern garter snake spends the winter hibernating under large rocks or inside animal burrows or caves. There are many dozens of recognized regional populations of common garter snakes that have distinct color patterns. •Reach an average adult length of up to 75. Garter snakes have many types of prey, including: frogs, toads, salamanders, earthworms, small fish, tadpoles, mice, bird eggs, slugs, crayfish, leeches, insects, and small snakes. Oakland County has one look-alike snake, the closely related and thinner semi-aquatic Eastern Ribbon Snake, Thamnophis sauritus. How to Get Rid of Garter Snakes. Most common garter snakes have a pattern of yellow stripes on a brown or green background, and their average total length (including tail) is about 55 cm (22 in), with a maximum total length of about 137 cm (54 in). Only found in Bergen Swamp near Rochester and Oneida Lake swamp land east. Scientific Name Common Name Special Status Category1 Notes. You won't find any. ) hasstripe on 2 nd and 3 rd scales rows. The first has three yellow longitudinal stripes (one dorsal and two lateral) and a black stripe broken by red spots between the yellow stripes. behaviour of the common garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis. Similar looking to common garter snakes, however have a distinctive long tail, comprising one-third its entire body length. It is more likely that the customer’s yard is frequented by common garter snakes, which are brown and yellow in color, enjoy sunning themselves in warm weather, and are harmless. Generally, they have three stripes on their backs, one down the center and one on either side of it. The species name sirtalis means "striped," also referring to the longitudinal stripes running the length of the body. In the wild they will eat leeches, crickets, fish, snails, slugs, earthworms, mice, lizards, amphibians, minnows, rodents, frog eggs, and toads. 4 Figures 1-5. Shop for common garter snake art from the world's greatest living artists. Coral snakes account for fewer than 1% of venomous snakebites in the United States. I see these snakes on almost a daily basis around my house however, when I went out to photograph some for this article they were nowhere to be found. However, they may bite if you try to pick them up. ) species other than native subspecies; Garter Snake (T. Other names for this species and its subspecies are common gartersnake, eastern gartersnake, and red-sided gartersnake. Description: The eastern garter snake has a variable color pattern, but may be identified by a yellow or white stripe running down the middle of its dark back—resembling the "garters" used to hold up socks. The Western terrestrial garter snake is brown or dark gray, with a dull yellow or brown stripe down the middle of its back. Adults of this species measure 18 - 55 inches in length (46 - 140 cm), but the average size is under 36 inches (91 cm). References. Snakes of Wisconsin by Wisconsin DNR. What Is a Worm Snake? wiseGEEK clear answers for common questions. - Garter snakes colors vary from green to grey to almost black, but regardless of the color, they all have a noticeable side and back stripe. Scientifically, they are known as Thamnophis sirtalis and can have a length ranging from 46 centimeters to 1. These one-of-a-kind creatures are found in an assortment of colors. Plains garter snakes are the easiest to identify. The common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis), like all reptiles in Quebec, is not poisonous to humans. They are commonly found in large numbers, and will utilize foundation openings to gain access under a home. Snakes have more than three thousand species which have different ability and conditions for living. Distribution Southeast, Common Garter. ** Garter snakes (genus Thamnophis) are one of the most common of snakes. Garter snake, garden snake, gardener snake, and ribbon snake are some of the common names for the nearly harmless, small to medium-sized snakes belonging to the genus Thamnophis. They grow little from birth in the late summer until their first spring. The red listed snakes are endangered but so little is known about them that it’s unclear why. North TX snakes can be difficult to ID. Such ages might be exceptional for wild snakes, but little is known on this subject. 45 Snake Species That are Found in Louisiana Home to several venomous as well as non-venomous snakes, Louisiana has been a constant attraction to snake enthusiasts who visit the area to study these reptiles. 5 years (males) or two years (females). ) Identification:. This group includes bull snakes, various racers, gopher snakes, king snakes, garter, ribbon, green and water snakes, coach whip snake, corn, rat and fox snakes, to name some of the more common species. The common garter snake is long and slender with a colorful and extremely variable appearance. You won't find any. The 10 Most Commonly Seen Snakes in DC Metro Area. 5 to 23 cm long. Including advice from Georgia snake experts about rattlesnakes. If anyone has a definitive answer on these two please let me know. As you can see in the full-body shot below, it fits easily into the deck drainage crack, which is only about 1/8 inch wide:. The northwestern garter snake average about 35-53 cm in length. Females are generally much longer than males and may occasionally exceed 30" in length. They can easily able to see at any continent except Antarctica. She displays animals from her extensive collection in an interactive and safe format creating “jungle fun” for everyone. The scientific name of the red-sided garter snake is Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis. Recent studies suggest that snakes are also valuable in reducing disease threats posed by high rodent populations. Description: The eastern garter snake has a variable color pattern, but may be identified by a yellow or white stripe running down the middle of its dark back—resembling the "garters" used to hold up socks. Garter snakes are distinguished from all other South Carolina species except ribbon snakes by the presence of three yellow longitudinal stripes on a dark body. This website can help with the identification of snakes of North TX like Cottonmouth, water moccasin, rat snake, TX ratsnake, Watersnake. Butler’s Garter Snake has a small head that is about the same width as the neck,. Most garter snakes have a pattern of yellow stripes on a brown or green background and their average length is about 55 cm (22 in), maximum about 137 cm (54 in). The background dorsal color may be green, olive to brown or black. Linda The Jungle Lady performs educational animal shows for groups of any size. Garter Snakes for Sale. Plains garter snake 12. Garter Snakes. What to Feed. Garter snake, garden snake, gardener snake, and ribbon snake are some of the common names for the nearly harmless, small to medium-sized snakes belonging to the genus Thamnophis. Caleb and Christal responded that it may be a Butlers Garter Snake which is extremely similar in appearance but is actually on the DNR's list of uncommon snakes in Wisconsin and has had sightings in south. Their heads are darker than their bodies. They are a fairly slim bodied snake, males more so than females. These snakes are common throughout the US and although they can get aggressive, they are harmless and make popular pets. Common garter snakes hunt for frogs, salamanders and tadpoles. a non-venomous snake. Garter Snakes and Water Snakes: From the Experts at advanced vivarium systems (The Herpetocultural Library) [David Perlowin] on Amazon. They live in many different rural and suburban areas and are found on hilltops, along rivers, and in backyards. Garter snakes exhibit sexual size dimorphism; males are smaller in head dimensions and body size than females, although they have longer tails relative to body length; such sexual dimorphism has been attributed to reproductive investment in females, as fecundity increased with body size. When they are born they are about 12. Eastern Garter Snake. Similar species in our area: All other Ribbon Snake (T. Gartersnakes are diurnal, live in many ecological communities (including around humans), and eat a wide variety of prey from earthworms and other inverts, to small mammals, birds, and amphibians. The primary way to distinguish a rattlesnake from other snakes is the presence of a rattle, a series of horny rings formed of keratin. and outer coast of the Olympic Peninsula), T. Average Length 135cm. The average body mass is 150 g (5. threatened by humans but I find them to be somewhat gentle. 5 feet long. In addition to the visible stripes on the body, the snakes also vary in color. List of snakes in Kansas; List of snakes in Colorado; List of snakes in Georgia; List of snakes in Arizona; List of snakes in Alabama; List of snakes of Trinidad and Tobago; List of snakes by common name; Snakes in Assamese Belief; List of snakes; Families; Green Tree Python; Garter Snake; Captured Python Said to Be World's Biggest Snake. What's so cool about common garter snakes? Garter snakes are some of the most prevalent snakes in North America, especially in the US. Download this free Garter Snake stock photo now. This is now known to be untrue, though their venom cannot kill a human. These stripes run the length of the snake's body and can be blue, green, yellow or white. Maist garter snakes hae a pattern o yellae stripes on a broun or green backgrund an thair average length is aboot 55 cm (22 in), wi a maximum length o aboot 137 cm (54 in). These snakes are common throughout the US and although they can get aggressive, they are harmless and make popular pets. sauritus), and Butler's Garter Snake (Thamnophis butleri) in Mixed Populations Authors Charles C. In the wild they will eat leeches, crickets, fish, snails, slugs, earthworms, mice, lizards, amphibians, minnows, rodents, frog eggs, and toads. Garter snakes are small, ranging in length from about 20–30 inches. One of three closely related and similar appearing snake species found in the state, the garter snake is highly variable in color pattern, but is generally dark greenish with three light stripes—one on each side and one. The background color is brown, often with darker spots. It's also the most wide ranging of all the garter snakes and found in almost all of the lower 48 states. The most common snake is the garter snake, and really one of the best creatures you could have in a landscape. O in Oregon and is f all the snakes in North. Length up to 130 cm - many colour variations - similar species: Eastern Ribbon Snake, Butler's Garter Snake. Additionally, in garter snakes the lateral yellow lines are on scales 2 and 3 whereas they are on scale rows 3 and 4 in ribbon snakes. It is likely that the lifespan of western terrestrial garter snakes is similar. Garter snakes are usually 23-30 inches long but have been know to grow up to 53 inches long. They are known for their characteristic stripe along the entire length of the spine, making them easy to identify. Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake- this snake is one of the largest venomous snakes in the state, growing to a length of eight feet. threatened by humans but I find them to be somewhat gentle. It can be found in almost every habitat type in the state. If you are not certain that your snake is a gartersnake, check the striped California snakes page to determine what kind of snake it is. Common garter snakes hunt for frogs, salamanders and tadpoles. This care guide will be focusing on the Common Garter wich includes eastern and red. DOWNLOAD DIRECTIONS. These are known as red-sided garters. Found in a variety of habitats, they are often the first snake a youngster sees and catches. Common garter snakes can differ in appearance from region to region. This one of common garter snake I think is one very beautiful pattern colour of snake, this snake is also cute of snake because it has ideal size of body to be as pet either for adult or children/kids. North American brown snakes are petite, ranging between 10 and 21 inches [25 to 53 centimeters] in length, said Viernum. The garter's appearance extremely variable. All State Reptiles. Garter snakes have eyes with rounded pupils, and there are two rows. Common garter snakes reach sexual maturity, and maximum size, at 3 to 4 years of age. Young per year: 3 – 26 young born live in July and August. Common gartersnakes look much like other gartersnakes except that their lateral stripes only involve scale rows 1, 2 and 3. Short-headed Garter Snake (Thamnophis brachystoma) Length: 18-26 inches. , and is extinct from S. THE CHECKERED GARTER SNAKE. These snakes, when threatened, will hide their heads and often secrete a foul-smelling fluid from a gland at their tail’s base. They range is size from. Common garter snakes are found in a diversity of habitats that are usually wet or damp, although not necessarily near permanently aquatic areas. The color is variable (dark brown, greenish, or olive), but there are normally three yellowish stripes, one down the back and one on each side. Since these sex organs are housed inside the male snake, they may not be obvious to you at first. Please let me know if you have any garter snake pictures you would like to have presented on this webpage. Donovan and N. (Yagi et al. Breeding period: spring. The common garter snake and it's cousin, the plains garter snake, are medium-sized snakes reaching up to 3 feet in length. Active from March to November. They are the snake you are most likely to encounter in most suburban areas. Its silivia is a toxis for the amphibians and other small animals but for human bieng its not dangerous but it can cause to them a little itching burning. eastern_gartersnake_10-28-11. significantly to individual daily energy expenditure (DEE). Snakes Habitat. Eastern Garter Snake – usually measuring around a little more than two feet, these snakes can reach as large as four feet. s pickeringii (Puget Sound lowlands) and T. Don't feel dejected if you have been searching high and low for eastern garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) eggs. 5 years (males) or two years (females). Remarks: Other common names in Virginia are riband snake (Hay, 1902), and slender garter snake, striped water snake, and striped racer (Linzey and Clifford, 1981). Then early this spring she was seen digging a common garter snake out of a hole in our neighbor's yard. It has distinct diamond patterns which appear dark-brown and dot the entire body. Identification: A snake which looks similar to the common Garter snake but is predominantly black with three longitudinal contrasting yellow stripes. The California red-sided garter snake or red-sided garter is a subspecies of common garter snakes found in North America. Most newborn snake species range in length from 3 to 17 inches. The members of the Thamnophis genus can be found just about everywhere in the Pacific Northwest and are commonly seen in backyard gardens, especially those with rocks (Kozloff 1995). The eastern indigo snake is the longest snake in North America and may reach a size of 8. No usually Garter Snakes have heads the size of your thumb but if the was a Garter Snake that is bigger 4 thumbs then yes it could eat a chipmunk. The frequency of melanism varies among populations but is stable within populations. Listed below is a guide to help you identify snakes by predominant color. 08 Gbp [68]. Males generally have longer and thicker tails than females. The common garter snake uses its tongue to seek out pheromones from potential mates. Males and females are similar in coloration but males are smaller than females with longer tails relative to their size. The snakes were in harm. Butler’s Garter Snake. The snakes of North Carolina can be separated into three different families: the Colubridae, Elapidae, and Viperidae. Anyone who has reported seeing one of these common reptiles that is six feet or longer has “stretched” it by at least a foot, somewhat like the big fish that got away!. Young common garter snakes are born at 12. The gartersnake's name is derived from the resemblance of its stripes to old-fashioned sock garters. The common garter snake is Thamnophis sirtaris - it is found in as north as Alaska and as south as New Mexico. Snakes known from or potentially found in Southwestern Oregon and conservation status. Eastern garter snakes are found statewide. ca FACT SHEET PHYSIOLOGY Common garter snakes can differ in appearance from region to region. These Snakes Originate Throughout North America And Canada; They Average About 3 To 4 Feet Long As Adults; With Proper Care These Can Live Up To 5-10 Years; These Snakes Can Be Found In Wooded Areas Near Lakes, Canals Or Streams; These Are Live Bearing Snakes Able To Give Birth To 10-40 Young At A Time. Female snakes also tend to be larger in length and girth than male snakes, in general, so that's something to keep in mind. All three species of Garter Snake are common throughout BC and not at risk of extinction (yellow-listed). This is however the average with some of them extending up to 135 centimeters. Here is our list of available garter snakes for sale at incredibly low prices. Common Garter Snake Pictures Info. Then early this spring she was seen digging a common garter snake out of a hole in our neighbor's yard. The Eastern gartersnake is one of Ohio's three gartersnakes, and it is the most abundant snake in Ohio. It averages 16-35 inches (41-89 cm) in length. My big brother found a little baby butlers garter snake that was only about 10 inches long if that, and it grew to a big snake almost six feet long. Identification. Humans destroy the wetlands that these snakes live in, and pollute the waters that they hunt in. They have a slim, agile body. They prefer to live in a warm and damp environment. It usually display a black or brown, olive or black back ground color with three visible yellow or orange lines against it, running longitudinally the snake’s body. However large, this snake is more of a gentle giant than you might imagine and is usually not aggressive. Garter snakes make excellent display reptiles because they tend to be very active and alert. It can be found in almost every habitat type in the state. body size dimorphism in snakes, much less is known about how and why the sex difference arises. Donovan and N. However, snakes also loathe and fear feeling exposed. It is usually pale brown, pink, purplish, or beige with a silver sheen. But most of our garters are medium-sized snakes, and females of our common garter may exceed four feet in length.